Question 1. How does biodiversity of urban nature interact with the broader biophysical, social, and technical contexts to mediate response of long-term ecological structure and function to urban stressors?
Q1.2. How do urban tree canopies of differing diversity – resulting from contrasting management and legacies of past housing and investment policies – influence resilience and resistance in the face of climate change, invasive pests and pathogens, land-use change, pollutants, and other stressors?
Question 2. How do the ecological structure and function of urban nature interact with social and technical factors to influence urban climate, hydrology, and water quality of watersheds and lake ecosystems over annual to decadal timescales?
Q2.2 How do management activities along urban hydrologic flow paths interact with urban development and climate change to determine the long-term fate and transport of nutrients and OM in urban watersheds and their impacts on urban lakes?
Question 3. How are decisions about urban nature, community wealth, and well-being coupled over space and time to affect social inequities; how can governance institutions be changed to better address equity, such that environmental outcomes and human well-being are improved for all urban residents?
Question 4. How can long-term social-ecological research engage inclusively with diverse urban communities, particularly Black, Indigenous, and other People of Color, for more equitable and meaningful scientific and community outcomes?